JMdict DTD

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!-- Rev 1.07 
Revised POS tags for the adjectives
<!-- Rev 1.06 
Dropped the "*" from the end of the entry element.
Dropped the g_lang attribute in favour of xml:lang
Dropped the <lang> element and replaced it with <lsource> at the
sense level.
Moved <dial> from the entry level to the sense level.
Changed "info*" to "info?".
<!-- Rev 1.05 
Changed the <gram> element name to <pos>
Added the g_gend attribute
moved the s_inf element
<!-- Rev 1.04 
Rename the project  "JMdict" and add the g_lang attribute to the 
<gloss> entity - 08 May 1999 
Moved the <gram>, <field> and <misc> elements down to be in the
<sense> region, as suggested by Chris Czeyka. I have also tidied up
some of the "*" as he suggested.  - 27 May 2000
Added the re_nokanji element - Sep 2003.
<!DOCTYPE JMdict [
<!ELEMENT JMdict (entry*)>
<!--                                                                   -->
<!ELEMENT entry (ent_seq, k_ele*, r_ele+, info?, sense+)>
<!-- Entries consist of kanji elements, reading elements, 
general information and sense elements. Each entry must have at 
least one reading element and one sense element. Others are optional.
<!ELEMENT ent_seq (#PCDATA)>
<!-- A unique numeric sequence number for each entry
<!ELEMENT k_ele (keb, ke_inf*, ke_pri*)>
<!-- The kanji element, or in its absence, the reading element, is 
the defining component of each entry.
The overwhelming majority of entries will have a single kanji
element associated with a word in Japanese. Where there are 
multiple kanji elements within an entry, they will be orthographical
variants of the same word, either using variations in okurigana, or
alternative and equivalent kanji. Common "mis-spellings" may be 
included, provided they are associated with appropriate information
fields. Synonyms are not included; they may be indicated in the
cross-reference field associated with the sense element.
<!-- This element will contain a word or short phrase in Japanese 
which is written using at least one non-kana character (usually kanji,
but can be other characters). The valid characters are
kanji, kana, related characters such as chouon and kurikaeshi, and
in exceptional cases, letters from other alphabets.
<!ELEMENT ke_inf (#PCDATA)>
<!-- This is a coded information field related specifically to the 
orthography of the keb, and will typically indicate some unusual
aspect, such as okurigana irregularity.
<!ELEMENT ke_pri (#PCDATA)>
<!-- This and the equivalent re_pri field are provided to record
information about the relative priority of the entry,  and consist
of codes indicating the word appears in various references which
can be taken as an indication of the frequency with which the word
is used. This field is intended for use either by applications which 
want to concentrate on entries of  a particular priority, or to 
generate subset files. 
The current values in this field are:
- news1/2: appears in the "wordfreq" file compiled by Alexandre Girardi
from the Mainichi Shimbun. (See the Monash ftp archive for a copy.)
Words in the first 12,000 in that file are marked "news1" and words 
in the second 12,000 are marked "news2".
- ichi1/2: appears in the "Ichimango goi bunruishuu", Senmon Kyouiku 
Publishing, Tokyo, 1998.  (The entries marked "ichi2" were
demoted from ichi1 because they were observed to have low
frequencies in the WWW and newspapers.)
- spec1 and spec2: a small number of words use this marker when they 
are detected as being common, but are not included in other lists.
- gai1/2: common loanwords, based on the wordfreq file.
- nfxx: this is an indicator of frequency-of-use ranking in the
wordfreq file. "xx" is the number of the set of 500 words in which
the entry can be found, with "01" assigned to the first 500, "02"
to the second, and so on. (The entries with news1, ichi1, spec1 and 
gai1 values are marked with a "(P)" in the EDICT and EDICT2

The reason both the kanji and reading elements are tagged is because on occasions a priority is only associated with a particular kanji/reading pair. --> <!-- --> <!ELEMENT r_ele (reb, re_nokanji?, re_restr*, re_inf*, re_pri*)> <!-- The reading element typically contains the valid readings of the word(s) in the kanji element using modern kanadzukai. Where there are multiple reading elements, they will typically be alternative readings of the kanji element. In the absence of a kanji element, i.e. in the case of a word or phrase written entirely in kana, these elements will define the entry. --> <!ELEMENT reb (#PCDATA)> <!-- this element content is restricted to kana and related characters such as chouon and kurikaeshi. Kana usage will be consistent between the keb and reb elements; e.g. if the keb contains katakana, so too will the reb. --> <!ELEMENT re_nokanji (#PCDATA)> <!-- This element, which will usually have a null value, indicates that the reb, while associated with the keb, cannot be regarded as a true reading of the kanji. It is typically used for words such as foreign place names, gairaigo which can be in kanji or katakana, etc. --> <!ELEMENT re_restr (#PCDATA)> <!-- This element is used to indicate when the reading only applies to a subset of the keb elements in the entry. In its absence, all readings apply to all kanji elements. The contents of this element must exactly match those of one of the keb elements. --> <!ELEMENT re_inf (#PCDATA)> <!-- General coded information pertaining to the specific reading. Typically it will be used to indicate some unusual aspect of the reading. --> <!ELEMENT re_pri (#PCDATA)> <!-- See the comment on ke_pri above. --> <!-- --> <!ELEMENT info (links*, bibl*, etym*, audit*)> <!-- general coded information relating to the entry as a whole.--> <!ELEMENT bibl (bib_tag?, bib_txt?)> <!ELEMENT bib_tag (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT bib_txt (#PCDATA)> <!-- Bibliographic information about the entry. The bib_tag will a coded reference to an entry in an external bibliographic database. The bib_txt field may be used for brief (local) descriptions.--> <!ELEMENT etym (#PCDATA)> <!-- This field is used to hold information about the etymology of the kanji or kana parts of the entry. For gairaigo, etymological information may also be in the <lsource> element. --> <!ELEMENT links (link_tag, link_desc, link_uri)> <!ELEMENT link_tag (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT link_desc (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT link_uri (#PCDATA)> <!-- This element holds details of linking information to entries in other electronic repositories. The link_tag will be coded to indicate the type of link (text, image, sound), the link_desc will provided a textual label for the link, and the link_uri contains the actual URI. --> <!ELEMENT audit (upd_date, upd_detl)> <!ELEMENT upd_date (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT upd_detl (#PCDATA)> <!-- The audit element will contain the date and other information about updates to the entry. Can be used to record the source of the material. --> <!-- --> <!ELEMENT sense (stagk*, stagr*, pos*, xref*, ant*, field*, misc*, s_inf*, lsource*, dial*, gloss*, example*)> <!-- The sense element will record the translational equivalent of the Japanese word, plus other related information. Where there are several distinctly different meanings of the word, multiple sense elements will be employed. --> <!ELEMENT stagk (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT stagr (#PCDATA)> <!-- These elements, if present, indicate that the sense is restricted to the lexeme represented by the keb and/or reb. --> <!ELEMENT xref (#PCDATA)*> <!-- This element is used to indicate a cross-reference to another entry with a similar or related meaning or sense. The content of this element is typically a keb or reb element in another entry. In some cases a keb will be followed by a reb and/or a sense number to provide a precise target for the cross-reference. Where this happens, a JIS "centre-dot" (0x2126) is placed between the components of the cross-reference. --> <!ELEMENT ant (#PCDATA)*> <!-- This element is used to indicate another entry which is an antonym of the current entry/sense. The content of this element must exactly match that of a keb or reb element in another entry. --> <!ELEMENT pos (#PCDATA)> <!-- Part-of-speech information about the entry/sense. Should use appropriate entity codes. In general where there are multiple senses in an entry, the part-of-speech of an earlier sense will apply to later senses unless there is a new part-of-speech indicated. --> <!ELEMENT field (#PCDATA)> <!-- Information about the field of application of the entry/sense. When absent, general application is implied. Entity coding for specific fields of application. --> <!ELEMENT misc (#PCDATA)> <!-- This element is used for other relevant information about the entry/sense. As with part-of-speech, information will usually apply to several senses. --> <!ELEMENT lsource (#PCDATA)> <!-- This element records the information about the source language(s) of a loan-word/gairaigo. If the source language is other than English, the language is indicated by the xml:lang attribute. The element value (if any) is the source word or phrase. --> <!ATTLIST lsource xml:lang CDATA "eng"> <!-- The xml:lang attribute defines the language(s) from which a loanword is drawn. It will be coded using the three-letter language code from the ISO 639-2 standard. When absent, the value "eng" (i.e. English) is the default value. The bibliographic (B) codes are used. --> <!ATTLIST lsource ls_type CDATA #IMPLIED> <!-- The ls_type attribute indicates whether the lsource element fully or partially describes the source word or phrase of the loanword. If absent, it will have the implied value of "full". Otherwise it will contain "part". --> <!ATTLIST lsource ls_wasei CDATA #IMPLIED> <!-- The ls_wasei attribute indicates that the Japanese word has been constructed from words in the source language, and not from an actual phrase in that language. Most commonly used to indicate "waseieigo". --> <!ELEMENT dial (#PCDATA)> <!-- For words specifically associated with regional dialects in Japanese, the entity code for that dialect, e.g. ksb for Kansaiben. --> <!ELEMENT gloss (#PCDATA | pri)*> <!-- Within each sense will be one or more "glosses", i.e. target-language words or phrases which are equivalents to the Japanese word. This element would normally be present, however it may be omitted in entries which are purely for a cross-reference. --> <!ATTLIST gloss xml:lang CDATA "eng"> <!-- The xml:lang attribute defines the target language of the gloss. It will be coded using the three-letter language code from the ISO 639 standard. When absent, the value "eng" (i.e. English) is the default value. --> <!ATTLIST gloss g_gend CDATA #IMPLIED> <!-- The g_gend attribute defines the gender of the gloss (typically a noun in the target language. When absent, the gender is either not relevant or has yet to be provided. --> <!ELEMENT pri (#PCDATA)> <!-- These elements highlight particular target-language words which are strongly associated with the Japanese word. The purpose is to establish a set of target-language words which can effectively be used as head-words in a reverse target-language/Japanese relationship. --> <!ELEMENT example (#PCDATA)> <!-- The example elements provide for pairs of short Japanese and target-language phrases or sentences which exemplify the usage of the Japanese head-word and the target-language gloss. Words in example fields would typically not be indexed by a dictionary application. --> <!ELEMENT s_inf (#PCDATA)> <!-- The sense-information elements provided for additional information to be recorded about a sense. Typical usage would be to indicate such things as level of currency of a sense, the regional variations, etc. --> <!-- The following entity codes are used for common elements within the various information fields. --> <!ENTITY MA "martial arts term"> <!ENTITY X "rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software)"> <!ENTITY abbr "abbreviation"> <!ENTITY adj-i "adjective (keiyoushi)"> <!ENTITY adj-na "adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)"> <!ENTITY adj-no "nouns which may take the genitive case particle `no'"> <!ENTITY adj-pn "pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi)"> <!ENTITY adj-t "`taru' adjective"> <!ENTITY adj-f "noun or verb acting prenominally"> <!ENTITY adj "former adjective classification (being removed)"> <!ENTITY adv "adverb (fukushi)"> <!ENTITY adv-to "adverb taking the `to' particle"> <!ENTITY arch "archaism"> <!ENTITY ateji "ateji (phonetic) reading"> <!ENTITY aux "auxiliary"> <!ENTITY aux-v "auxiliary verb"> <!ENTITY aux-adj "auxiliary adjective"> <!ENTITY Buddh "Buddhist term"> <!ENTITY chem "chemistry term"> <!ENTITY chn "children's language"> <!ENTITY col "colloquialism"> <!ENTITY comp "computer terminology"> <!ENTITY conj "conjunction"> <!ENTITY ctr "counter"> <!ENTITY derog "derogatory"> <!ENTITY eK "exclusively kanji"> <!ENTITY ek "exclusively kana"> <!ENTITY exp "Expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.)"> <!ENTITY fam "familiar language"> <!ENTITY fem "female term or language"> <!ENTITY food "food term"> <!ENTITY geom "geometry term"> <!ENTITY gikun "gikun (meaning as reading) or jukujikun (special kanji reading)"> <!ENTITY hon "honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language"> <!ENTITY hum "humble (kenjougo) language"> <!ENTITY iK "word containing irregular kanji usage"> <!ENTITY id "idiomatic expression"> <!ENTITY ik "word containing irregular kana usage"> <!ENTITY int "interjection (kandoushi)"> <!ENTITY io "irregular okurigana usage"> <!ENTITY iv "irregular verb"> <!ENTITY ling "linguistics terminology"> <!ENTITY m-sl "manga slang"> <!ENTITY male "male term or language"> <!ENTITY male-sl "male slang"> <!ENTITY math "mathematics"> <!ENTITY mil "military"> <!ENTITY n "noun (common) (futsuumeishi)"> <!ENTITY n-adv "adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi)"> <!ENTITY n-suf "noun, used as a suffix"> <!ENTITY n-pref "noun, used as a prefix"> <!ENTITY n-t "noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi)"> <!ENTITY num "numeric"> <!ENTITY oK "word containing out-dated kanji"> <!ENTITY obs "obsolete term"> <!ENTITY obsc "obscure term"> <!ENTITY ok "out-dated or obsolete kana usage"> <!ENTITY on-mim "onomatopoeic or mimetic word"> <!ENTITY pn "pronoun"> <!ENTITY poet "poetical term"> <!ENTITY pol "polite (teineigo) language"> <!ENTITY pref "prefix"> <!ENTITY proverb "proverb"> <!ENTITY prt "particle"> <!ENTITY physics "physics terminology"> <!ENTITY rare "rare"> <!ENTITY sens "sensitive"> <!ENTITY sl "slang"> <!ENTITY suf "suffix"> <!ENTITY uK "word usually written using kanji alone"> <!ENTITY uk "word usually written using kana alone"> <!ENTITY v1 "Ichidan verb"> <!ENTITY v2a-s "Nidan verb with 'u' ending (archaic)"> <!ENTITY v4h "Yondan verb with `hu/fu' ending (archaic)"> <!ENTITY v4r "Yondan verb with `ru' ending (archaic)"> <!ENTITY v5 "Godan verb (not completely classified)"> <!ENTITY v5aru "Godan verb - -aru special class"> <!ENTITY v5b "Godan verb with `bu' ending"> <!ENTITY v5g "Godan verb with `gu' ending"> <!ENTITY v5k "Godan verb with `ku' ending"> <!ENTITY v5k-s "Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class"> <!ENTITY v5m "Godan verb with `mu' ending"> <!ENTITY v5n "Godan verb with `nu' ending"> <!ENTITY v5r "Godan verb with `ru' ending"> <!ENTITY v5r-i "Godan verb with `ru' ending (irregular verb)"> <!ENTITY v5s "Godan verb with `su' ending"> <!ENTITY v5t "Godan verb with `tsu' ending"> <!ENTITY v5u "Godan verb with `u' ending"> <!ENTITY v5u-s "Godan verb with `u' ending (special class)"> <!ENTITY v5uru "Godan verb - Uru old class verb (old form of Eru)"> <!ENTITY v5z "Godan verb with `zu' ending"> <!ENTITY vz "Ichidan verb - zuru verb (alternative form of -jiru verbs)"> <!ENTITY vi "intransitive verb"> <!ENTITY vk "Kuru verb - special class"> <!ENTITY vn "irregular nu verb"> <!ENTITY vr "irregular ru verb, plain form ends with -ri"> <!ENTITY vs "noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru"> <!ENTITY vs-c "su verb - precursor to the modern suru"> <!ENTITY vs-s "suru verb - special class"> <!ENTITY vs-i "suru verb - irregular"> <!ENTITY kyb "Kyoto-ben"> <!ENTITY osb "Osaka-ben"> <!ENTITY ksb "Kansai-ben"> <!ENTITY ktb "Kantou-ben"> <!ENTITY tsb "Tosa-ben"> <!ENTITY thb "Touhoku-ben"> <!ENTITY tsug "Tsugaru-ben"> <!ENTITY kyu "Kyuushuu-ben"> <!ENTITY rkb "Ryuukyuu-ben"> <!ENTITY nab "Nagano-ben"> <!ENTITY vt "transitive verb"> <!ENTITY vulg "vulgar expression or word"> ]>