(*Most of the statistical material related to cross-tabulation is covered under * Chi-square.)

Cross-tabluation is about taking two variables and tabulating the results of one variable against the other variable. An example would be the cross-tabluation of course performance against mode of study:

HD | D | C | P | NN | |

FT - Internal | 10 | 15 | 18 | 33 | 8 |

PT Internal | 3 | 4 | 8 | 15 | 10 |

External | 4 | 3 | 12 | 15 | 6 |

Each individual would have had a recorded **mode of study** (the rows of the table) and **performance on the course** (the columns of the table). For each indivdual, those pairs of values have been entered into the appropriate cell of the table.

**What does cross-tabulation tell you?**

A cross-tabulation gives you a basic picture of how two variables inter-relate.

It helps you search for patterns of interaction. Obviously, if certain cells contain disproportionately large (or small) numbers of cases, then this suggests that there might be a pattern of interaction.

In the table above, the basic pattern is what you would expect as a teacher but, at a general level, it says that the bulk of students get a **P** rating independant of mode of study.

What we normally do is to calculate the Chi-square statistic to see if this pattern has any substantial relevance.

**To be Completed**